Skip to main content

My InfoTech Journal!

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model: The OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Reference Model are both conceptual frameworks used to understand and standardize how different networking protocols and technologies interact. Here are some areas of comparison: 1. Number of Layers: OSI Model : It consists of seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and  TCP/IP Model : It has four layers: Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application. 2. L ayer Functionality: OSI Model : Tends to be more comprehensive and abstract, defining each layer's functions independently. TCP/IP Model : Reflects the actual implementation of the Internet and focuses on how protocols are used in practice. 3. Adoption / Use: OSI Model : Less commonly used in practice, but it is still valuab

My InfoTech Journal: Unpacking the OSI Model: Your Guide to Networking Layers

My InfoTech Journal: Unpacking the OSI Model: Your Guide to Networking Layers




The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model is a way to understand how different parts of computer networks communicate. Each layer having a specific job.


1. Physical Layer: This is the actual hardware, like cables and switches. Example: Ethernet cables connect devices in a network.


2. Data Link Layer: Ensures data is sent and received without errors within a local network. Example: Ethernet frames help in local data transfer.


3. Network Layer: Manages data routing between different networks. Example: IP (Internet Protocol) routers guide data between your home and a website.


4. Transport Layer: Ensures data arrives reliably and in order. Example: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) guarantees error-free data transfer.


5. Session Layer: Establishes, maintains, and ends connections between devices. Example: Setting up a video call on Skype.


6. Presentation Layer: Translates data into a format that the application layer can understand. Example: Encryption for secure online shopping.


7. Application Layer: This is where your actual programs, like web browsers or email clients, run. Example: Your web browser displaying a website.



Risks and Vulnerabilities:

Risks include data interception, manipulation, and denial of service attacks.


Vulnerabilities can be outdated software, weak passwords, or unencrypted data.


Securing the OSI Model

  • Physical: Use secure physical access controls to prevent unauthorized tampering.
  • Data Link: Employ MAC address filtering and switch security features.
  • Network: Use firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS) to protect against network attacks.
  • Transport: Enable encryption (SSL/TLS) for secure data transfer.
  • Session: Implement secure authentication and authorization mechanisms.
  • Presentation: Encrypt sensitive data and ensure software is up-to-date.
  • Application: Keep software patched and educate users about security.


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communication over the internet. Here's a brief overview of each:


1. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer):

  • SSL was the predecessor to TLS and was introduced in the early days of the internet.
  • It provided a way to secure data transmission between a web server and a client (usually a web browser).
  • Over time, security vulnerabilities were discovered in SSL, leading to its replacement by TLS.


2. TLS (Transport Layer Security):

  • TLS is the updated and more secure version of SSL.
  • It ensures data privacy, integrity, and authentication between two communicating applications.
  • TLS is widely used for securing web traffic, email communication, and various other internet services.
  • It operates at the transport layer of the OSI model (hence the name).

While SSL and TLS serve the same purpose of securing internet communication, TLS is the newer and more secure protocol, and it is the one primarily used today for securing data transmission on the internet.


Useful Analogy

Analogy 1: The OSI model is like a postal system

Application Layer: Writing and addressing the letter.

Presentation Layer: Packaging and language translation.

Session Layer: Keeping track of the conversation.

Transport Layer: Ensuring safe delivery of the letter.

Network Layer: Determining the best route to send the letter.

Data Link Layer: Handling the local mail delivery.

Physical Layer: The actual postal service and roads.


Analogy 2: Think of the OSI model as a team preparing a meal

Application Layer: The chef deciding what dishes to make.

Presentation Layer: Plating and garnishing the meal.

Session Layer: Managing the kitchen workflow.

Transport Layer: Delivering the meal to the dining table.

Network Layer: Deciding which table to send the meal to.

Data Link Layer: Ensuring the meal gets to the right diner.

Physical Layer: The kitchen tools and infrastructure.


Analogy 3: Imagine the OSI model as a package delivery service

Application Layer: You preparing a package to send.

Presentation Layer: Wrapping and labeling the package.

Session Layer: Organizing the delivery schedule.

Transport Layer: Ensuring the package's safe journey.

Network Layer: Deciding the best delivery route.

Data Link Layer: Handling the local distribution hubs.

Physical Layer: The trucks, roads, and actual delivery process.


Useful mnemonic code to help memorize the OSI model layers:

This code helps you remember the order of the OSI model layers from top to bottom.


All People Seem To Need Data Processing”

Each initial letter of the words corresponds to a layer:


Application Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer


Here’s another memory aid to remember the OSI model layers:

All People Should Taste New Domino Pizza"


Application Layer

Presentation Layer

Session Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer



Disclaimer 

This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advice. Please consult your Information Legal Team, Information Security Team, Data Privacy, Ethics & Compliance, or Regulatory Team for the interpretation of  specific compliance requirements.


"The main objective of MyInfoTechJournal.com is to promote quality and compliance, share knowledge, experience, best practices, and to promote healthy discussion among practitioners… specifically in the world of Information Security, Data Privacy, SOX Compliance, CyberSecurity and similar regulations.” - MyInfoTechJournal.com


“If You have any questions, suggestions, or topics to discuss, please leave a comment below.” - MyInfoTechJournal.com







Comments

POPULAR: My InfoTech Journal

Information Security Tenets (The CIA Triad)

My InfoTech Journal:   Information Security Tenets The CIA Triad The   three tenets or fundamental principles of Information Security are  Confidentiality ,  Integrity , and  Availability .  This is also commonly known as the CIA Triad . The Information Security  programs refers to the controls designed and implemented to protect these three tenets:  Confidentiality ,  Integrity , and  Availability .   What is Confidentiality? Confidentiality ensures that private information remains private and that these private information can only be accessed or viewed by authorized individuals on need to know basis. Information Security controls must therefore be put in place to protect the data from unauthorized disclosure.  Examples of  Information Security controls  to ensure Data Confidentiality : Access Control List (ACL) Username and Password  Encryption  Two-Factor Authentication (Password, Token, PIN, Biometric, etc) What is Integrity? Integrity refers to the accuracy and completeness of t

Network Security: How to minimize the Risk of your Wireless Network

My InfoTech Journal: What you can do to minimize the risk of your wireless network? Access Points are usually targets for unauthorized access. You have to ensure that your access points are secured to prevent unauthorized access.  There are several ways of securing your wireless access points.  Here is a Security Tip from the US CISA. Change default password. Restrict access. Encrypt the data on your network. Protect your Service Set Identifier (SSID). Install a Firewall. Maintain Anti-Virus software.I Use file sharing with caution. Keep your access point software patched and up to date. Check your internet provider’s router or router manufacturers wireless security options. Connect Using Virtual Private Network (VPN). A more detailed discussion of this tip can be found in this post:   US CISA: Security Tip (ST 005-003) Securing Wireless Networks End Notes  US CISA: Security Tip Disclaimer   This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advise.  Ple

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation (Part 3 of 3: EXAMPLE)

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation  (Part 3 of 3: EXAMPLE)

Playbook for Conducting a Comprehensive IT Infrastructure Audit

Playbook for Conducting a Comprehensive IT Infrastructure Audit

The Ultimate Guide to Protecting Your Company's Secrets and Personal Information - Don't Get Hacked!

My InfoTech Journal: The Ultimate Guide to Protecting Your Company's Secrets and Personal Information - Don't Get Hacked!

Are You Safe? The Shocking Truth About Privacy Risks and How to Protect Yourself

My InfoTech Journal: Are You Safe? The Shocking Truth About Privacy Risks and How to Protect Yourself

Network Security: How to Secure Your Network

My InfoTech Journal: Network Security  To set the context of this domain, I have here several definitions from different service providers. Network Security  refers to the practices of protecting computer network from intruders, including both wired and wireless connections. - US CISA Network Security  is any activity designed to protect the usability and integrity of your network and data. It includes both hardware and software technologies. Effective network security manages access to the network. It targets a variety of threats and stops them from entering or spreading on your network. - Cisco Network Security  combines multiple layers of defenses at the edge and in the network. Each network security layer implements policies and controls. Authorized users gain access to network resources, but malicious actors are blocked from carrying out exploits and threats. - Cisco Network Security  are measures taken to protect a communications pathway from unauthorized access to, and accidenta

Unlock the Secrets of the Top 10 Information Security Solutions and Safeguard Your Digital World!

{color: #000000; } My InfoTech Journal: Unlock the Secrets of the Top 10 Information Security Solutions and Safeguard Your Digital World!

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation (Part 2 of 3: REQUIREMENTS)

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation (Part 2 of 3: REQUIREMENTS & TEMPLATE)

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation (Part 1 of 3: INTRODUCTION)

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation  (Part 1 of 3: INTRODUCTION)