Skip to main content

My InfoTech Journal!

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model: The OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Reference Model are both conceptual frameworks used to understand and standardize how different networking protocols and technologies interact. Here are some areas of comparison: 1. Number of Layers: OSI Model : It consists of seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and  TCP/IP Model : It has four layers: Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application. 2. L ayer Functionality: OSI Model : Tends to be more comprehensive and abstract, defining each layer's functions independently. TCP/IP Model : Reflects the actual implementation of the Internet and focuses on how protocols are used in practice. 3. Adoption / Use: OSI Model : Less commonly used in practice, but it is still valuab

Designing Countermeasures in CyberSecurity

My InfoTech Journal:
CyberSecurity



CyberSecurity

CyberSecurity is the principle of securing your digital assets, specially your critical systems and sensitive information from cyber threats or cyber attacks.

For this article, I will be discussing the CyberSecurity principles by IBM.


CyberSecurity Domains

IBM has defined a strong CyberSecurity strategy as having layers of protection against cyber crime, including cyber attacks that attempt to access, change or destroy data; extort money from users or organisations; or aim to disrupt business operations. 1  

IBM has listed the following CyberSecurity Domains as the fundamental areas covered by their  CyberSecurity strategy.

CyberSecurity Domains:

  • Critical Information Security 
  • Network Security 
  • Application Security 
  • Cloud Security 
  • Information Security 
  • End-User Education 
  • Disaster Recovery / Business Continuity Planning 


Based on the IBM strategy, the following CyberSecurity Domains must be considered when designing countermeasures:


Critical Infrastructure Security 

This domain refers to the practices of protecting the computer systems, network, and other assesses that society relies upon for national security, economic health, and/or public safety. 1

IBM has mentioned the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) CyberSecurity framework as reference to help organisations in this area, and the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for additional guidance. 1



Network Security 

This domain refers to the practices of protecting computer network from intruders, including both wired and wireless connections. 1

You need to ensure that your network infrastructure such as firewalls, routers, switches, and other telecommunications equipment are fully patched, properly configured with only allowed services running, monitored diligently, and tested for attacks simulation.

Access Points are usually targets for unauthorized access. You have to ensure that your access points are secured to prevent unauthorized access. 

There are several ways of securing your wireless access points. Here is a Security Tip from the US CISA.

What you can do to minimize the risk of your wireless network? 2

  • Change default password.
  • Restrict access.
  • Encrypt the data on your network.
  • Protect your Service Set Identifier (SSID).
  • Install a Firewall.
  • Maintain Anti-Virus software.
  • Use file sharing with caution.
  • Keep your access point software patched and up to date.
  • Check your internet provider’s router or router manufacturers wireless security oopptions.
  • Connect Using Virtual Private Network (VPN).
A more detailed discussion of this tip can be found in this post: US CISA: Security Tip (ST 005-003) Securing Wireless Networks


Application Security 

This domain refers to the practices of protecting applications operating on premises and in cloud. Security must be built into applications at the design stage, with considerations at how data is handled, user authentication, etc. 1

There are several framework for Application Security, which includes the NIST Secure System and Applications (SSA).

The Secure System and Applications (SSA) group does Research, Develop and produce guidelines, Provides recommendations and best practices for foundational security mechanisms, protocols, and services. 3 

The Secure Systems and Applications (SSA) Group’s security research focuses on identifying emerging and high-priority technologies, and on developing security solutions that will have a high impact on the U.S. critical information infrastructure. 3


The group conducts research and development on behalf of government and industry from the earliest stages of technology development through proof-of-concept, reference and prototype implementations, and demonstrations. SSA works to transfer new technologies to industry, produce new standards and guidance for federal agencies and industry, and develop tests, test methodologies, and assurance methods. 3


For more information regarding the Secure Systems and Applications Group, visit the CSRC website. 3



Cloud Security 

IBM defined Cloud Security as specifically, true confidential computing that encrypts cloud data at rest (in storage), in motion (as it travels to, from and within the cloud) and in use (during processing) to support customer privacy, business requirements and regulatory compliance standards. 1

Cloud Security management will depend on where your cloud services is hosted.

If your cloud services is hosted and supported internally, then the Cloud Security Management will have to be handled by your internal IT Teams. Your internal IT Team will have to ensure the that your cloud infrastructure is secured.

There are also 3rd Party Cloud Service Providers that you can have an agreement with to host your systems. With a 3rd Party Agreement, the Cloud Security Management becomes the main responsibility of the Cloud Service Provider. The technology, information security, and skillsets are part of the Cloud Service Provider’s responsibility, and therefore you as an organization can focus on running your core business.

Some of these Cloud Service Providers are as follows (just to name a few):

  • Microsoft Azure
  • Google Cloud Platform 
  • Amazon Web Services 
  • IBM Cloud Computing
  • RackSpace
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Alibaba Cloud
  • VMWare
  • Salesforce 
  • SAP


Information Security 

IBM defined Information Security as data protection measures, such as the General Data Protection Regulation or GDPR, that secure your most sensitive data from unauthorized access, exposure, or theft. 1

Information Security programs refer to security controls designed and implemented to protect the three tenets of Information namely: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

Additional discussion about the Three Tenets of Information Security or also known as the CIA Triad can be found in this article: My InfoTech Journal: Information Security Tenets 



End-User Education 

IBM defined End-User Education as building security awareness across the Organization to strengthen endpoint security. For example, users can be trained to delete suspicious email attachments, avoid using known USB devices, etc. 1

End-User Education is an evergreen process. You need to have a yearly program to ensure the your End-Users are updated and abreast with new threats. 

For example, Your End-Users should be equipped with skills to help them identify suspicious emails used for phishing, and know how to report these types of emails to appropriate teams for further analysis. 

Your training materials should also be designed to be more effective with example scenarios that are current and relatable to your End-Users.



Disaster Recovery / Business Continuity Planning

IBM defined Disaster Recovery / Business Continuity Planning as tools and procedures for responding to unplanned events, such as natural disasters, power outages, or cybersecurity incidents, with minimal disruption to key operations. 1

Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) will help ensure that your organization is able to recover for every disaster scenario identified in your business risk assessment.

Business Continuity Plan (BCP) will help ensure that your business is able to continue with business critical functions, while waiting for your critical systems to be recovered.

It is important to review and test your DRP and BCP strategy to ensure that everyone involved in the process of disaster recovery and business continuity are familiar with their respective roles and responsibilities.

DRP and BCP Testing also aims to capture process improvements or technology adjustments that may be required.



That concludes our discussion for this topic. I hope you are able to pickup something useful from this article.



End Notes

IBM: CyberSecurity

2 US CISA: Security Tip (ST 005-003) Securing Wireless Networks

3 NIST Secure Systems and Applications


Disclaimer 

This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advise. 

Please consult your Legal Team, Ethics & Compliance, or Regulatory Team for the interpretation of  specific CyberSecurity requirements.



Support My InfoTech Journal





Comments

POPULAR: My InfoTech Journal

Fortifying the Digital Frontier: Unmasking Network Security Risks and Solutions

Fortifying the Digital Frontier:  Unmasking Network Security Risks and Solutions It has been a while since my last post. I have been busy with work and learning Microsoft PowerBI and Power Automate. These are very good tools for dashboard creation and automation. Very easy to learn and use. Kudos to Microsoft for coming up with these great tools! Fast forward, I have recently enrolled in a Master of Information Systems (MIS) program via Distance Education. I am excited to be an online distance education student. It has been a    very long time since I was a student. I know there will be adjustments needed from me… to be diligent, to be disciplined in balancing my work-studies-life, and to persevere to achieve my goal of getting my Master’s Degree. I have decided to share my research in  MyInfoTech Journal  hoping these information will also be able to help those researching for similar topics. Today, I am researching on the  Network Layer  and its Security Implications . The informatio

Information Security Tenets (The CIA Triad)

My InfoTech Journal:   Information Security Tenets The CIA Triad The   three tenets or fundamental principles of Information Security are  Confidentiality ,  Integrity , and  Availability .  This is also commonly known as the CIA Triad . The Information Security  programs refers to the controls designed and implemented to protect these three tenets:  Confidentiality ,  Integrity , and  Availability .   What is Confidentiality? Confidentiality ensures that private information remains private and that these private information can only be accessed or viewed by authorized individuals on need to know basis. Information Security controls must therefore be put in place to protect the data from unauthorized disclosure.  Examples of  Information Security controls  to ensure Data Confidentiality : Access Control List (ACL) Username and Password  Encryption  Two-Factor Authentication (Password, Token, PIN, Biometric, etc) What is Integrity? Integrity refers to the accuracy and completeness of t

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation (Part 3 of 3: EXAMPLE)

MyInfoTechJournal: Never Let a Crisis Go to Waste: The Ultimate Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for Thriving in Any Situation  (Part 3 of 3: EXAMPLE)

Network Security: How to minimize the Risk of your Wireless Network

My InfoTech Journal: What you can do to minimize the risk of your wireless network? Access Points are usually targets for unauthorized access. You have to ensure that your access points are secured to prevent unauthorized access.  There are several ways of securing your wireless access points.  Here is a Security Tip from the US CISA. Change default password. Restrict access. Encrypt the data on your network. Protect your Service Set Identifier (SSID). Install a Firewall. Maintain Anti-Virus software.I Use file sharing with caution. Keep your access point software patched and up to date. Check your internet provider’s router or router manufacturers wireless security options. Connect Using Virtual Private Network (VPN). A more detailed discussion of this tip can be found in this post:   US CISA: Security Tip (ST 005-003) Securing Wireless Networks End Notes  US CISA: Security Tip Disclaimer   This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advise.  Ple

Are You Safe? The Shocking Truth About Privacy Risks and How to Protect Yourself

My InfoTech Journal: Are You Safe? The Shocking Truth About Privacy Risks and How to Protect Yourself

Unlock the Secrets of the Top 10 Information Security Solutions and Safeguard Your Digital World!

{color: #000000; } My InfoTech Journal: Unlock the Secrets of the Top 10 Information Security Solutions and Safeguard Your Digital World!

The Ultimate Guide to Protecting Your Company's Secrets and Personal Information - Don't Get Hacked!

My InfoTech Journal: The Ultimate Guide to Protecting Your Company's Secrets and Personal Information - Don't Get Hacked!

Playbook for Conducting a Comprehensive IT Infrastructure Audit

Playbook for Conducting a Comprehensive IT Infrastructure Audit

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model: The OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Reference Model are both conceptual frameworks used to understand and standardize how different networking protocols and technologies interact. Here are some areas of comparison: 1. Number of Layers: OSI Model : It consists of seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and  TCP/IP Model : It has four layers: Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application. 2. L ayer Functionality: OSI Model : Tends to be more comprehensive and abstract, defining each layer's functions independently. TCP/IP Model : Reflects the actual implementation of the Internet and focuses on how protocols are used in practice. 3. Adoption / Use: OSI Model : Less commonly used in practice, but it is still valuab

Network Security: How to Secure Your Network

My InfoTech Journal: Network Security  To set the context of this domain, I have here several definitions from different service providers. Network Security  refers to the practices of protecting computer network from intruders, including both wired and wireless connections. - US CISA Network Security  is any activity designed to protect the usability and integrity of your network and data. It includes both hardware and software technologies. Effective network security manages access to the network. It targets a variety of threats and stops them from entering or spreading on your network. - Cisco Network Security  combines multiple layers of defenses at the edge and in the network. Each network security layer implements policies and controls. Authorized users gain access to network resources, but malicious actors are blocked from carrying out exploits and threats. - Cisco Network Security  are measures taken to protect a communications pathway from unauthorized access to, and accidenta