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My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model: The OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Reference Model are both conceptual frameworks used to understand and standardize how different networking protocols and technologies interact. Here are some areas of comparison: 1. Number of Layers: OSI Model : It consists of seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and  TCP/IP Model : It has four layers: Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application. 2. L ayer Functionality: OSI Model : Tends to be more comprehensive and abstract, defining each layer's functions independently. TCP/IP Model : Reflects the actual implementation of the Internet and focuses on how protocols are used in practice. 3. Adoption / Use: OSI Model : Less commonly used in practice, but it is still valuab

The Human Factor in the CyberSecurity Chain

My InfoTech Journal: 
The Human Factor in the CyberSecurity Chain 







I have been reading some articles recently and came across this topic on who is the weakest link in the CyberSecurity chain. I was not surprised by what I learned. The study results just re-affirmed what we knew all along.

Based on the study reports I reviewed, all reports point to the Human Factor as the weakest link in the CyberSecurity chain. You may search for Gartner Report, E&Y Studies, and other studies for more details of their respective studies.

Human’s have exploitable traits and habits that are inherent vulnerabilities. 

You may have implemented high-tech solutions to secure your organization, but at the end of the day you have your Employees to use, operate, and manage these technologies.

The study result based on different considerations have showed that Employees are the weakest link in the CyberSecurity chain. 

Employees being at the front line, are targets for human-based attacks that exploit the human nature, personality, habits, and traits. 

Attackers would then design situations that will try to exploit these behaviours. 


What are the common human-based attacks? 


The following are the most common attacks targeting the employees’ traits and behaviour. 

  • PhishingHackers will use phishing emails to impersonate someone from within the company or from a reputable organization, to trick you into providing your personal information, account details, password, and other sensitive information. The email will usually have a link that will open a fake site with possibly a form that totally resembles the organization’s template. After filling up the form, the information goes directly to the hackers.

  • Unauthorized Software - Use of unauthorized software puts the organization at risk of being breached. These unauthorized software are normally office tools that will help your employees in their respective functions like PDF editor and similar software, but if downloaded with a payload, then your network becomes vulnerable to attacks. In most cases unauthorized software are used by Hackers to carry malicious payload to penetrate your network.

  • Weak Password and Password Sharing - Weak password is one vulnerability already. Then sharing account and password to support your IT Operations increases the risk exponentially! Weak passwords if hacked especially on privileged accounts will do more damage on your environment since it is able to perform elevated functions that can be exploited and be used to access your sensitive data and do more damage in your IT environment.

  • Accessing  Public WiFi Connecting to a public wifi in coffee shops, shopping malls, and other places with public wifi puts you at risk of  the“Man-in-the-Middle” attack. This involves setting up free wifi spots and running an eavesdropping tool to capture information from unsuspecting users. Once a user is connected, the Hacker can phish for information or push malware into the device.


Improve Employees’ CyberSecurity Awareness

Your Employees may be the weakest link in the CyberSecurity chain, 
but you can train them to be part of your first line of defence. 

Improving Employees’ CyrberSecurity know-how will depend greatly on your company’s CyberSecurity Awareness Program. This must be aimed to strengthen your first line of defence.

  • There must be a CyberSecurity Awareness Program to ensure everyone is aligned with the company’s principles, policies and procedures.
  • The CyberSecurity Awareness Program should promote everyone’s inclusion and a culture that CyberSecurity is everyone’s responsibility.
  • The CyberSecurity Awareness Courses will also help everyone in the company to be in the same page against malicious attacks.
  • The CyrberSecurity Training should be regularly deployed to the Employees.
  • The CyberSecurity courses should be  designed to include training Employees on the different human-based attacks, how to identify these types of attacks, and how to report incidents of an attack.
  • These training materials should be easily accessible and readily available when needed.
  • Tracking should be implemented to ensure individual training compliance.
  • Well-trained Employees will know how to detect, respond, and report when something does not seem right… enabling them part of your first line of defence.


Disclaimer 

This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advise. 

Please consult your Legal Team, Ethics & Compliance, or Regulatory Team for the interpretation of  specific CyberSecurity requirements.




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