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My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models

My InfoTech Journal: Decoding the Networking Enigma: OSI vs. TCP/IP Reference Models The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) Reference Model: The OSI Reference Model and the TCP/IP Reference Model are both conceptual frameworks used to understand and standardize how different networking protocols and technologies interact. Here are some areas of comparison: 1. Number of Layers: OSI Model : It consists of seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and  TCP/IP Model : It has four layers: Network Interface, Internet, Transport, and Application. 2. L ayer Functionality: OSI Model : Tends to be more comprehensive and abstract, defining each layer's functions independently. TCP/IP Model : Reflects the actual implementation of the Internet and focuses on how protocols are used in practice. 3. Adoption / Use: OSI Model : Less commonly used in practice, but it is still valuab

Mastering Data Integrity: The Ultimate Guide to Concepts and Controls That Will Keep Your Data Safe and Secure!

My InfoTech Journal:

Mastering Data Integrity: The Ultimate Guide to Concepts and Controls That Will Keep Your Data Safe and Secure!




Data Integrity refers to the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data throughout its life cycle. There are several types of data integrity concepts and data integrity controls that can be used to maintain data integrity. Here are some of the most common types.


Types of Data Integrity Concepts:

Entity Integrity

This refers to the concept that each row of data in a database table should be uniquely identified. It means that a primary key must be created for each row in the table.

Referential Integrity

This refers to the concept that the relationship between tables in a database must be maintained. It means that foreign keys must be used to ensure that data in one table relates to data in another table.

Domain Integrity

This refers to the concept that data entered into a database should conform to defined rules or constraints. For example, a phone number field may only allow 10 digits.

User-Defined Integrity

This refers to the concept that organizations can define their own data integrity rules that are specific to their business requirements. For example, a bank may require that all transactions over a certain amount must be approved by a manager.


Types of Data Integrity Controls:

Access Controls

Access controls limit the access to data to only those who are authorized to view or modify it. This control includes password protection, role-based access, and user permissions.

Data Validation

Data validation is the process of verifying data to ensure it is accurate and complete. This control includes data scrubbing, data verification, and data correction.

Backup and Recovery 

Backup and recovery procedures are put in place to protect data in the event of a data loss. This control includes regular backups, testing of backups, and disaster recovery planning.

Change Control

Change control is the processof managing changes to data or systems. This control includes documentation of changes, testing of changes, and approval of changes.

Auditing

Auditing is the process of reviewing and monitoring data to ensure it is accurate and secure. This control includesperiodic audits, review of audit logs, and investigation of suspicious activity.


In summary, there are several types of data integrity concepts and data integrity controls that organizations can use to maintain the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of their data. 


Implementing these controls can help to protect the integrity of data and ensure that it remains trustworthy throughout its life cycle.


Disclaimer

This article is a result of my personal research and is not a substitute for legal advice. Please consult your Information Security Team, Legal Team, Ethics & Compliance, or Regulatory Team for the interpretation of  specific Information Security requirements.

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